28 Nėntori 1912 - Pavarėsia e Shqipėrisė


Data: Sunday, 29 November @ 09:09:18 PST
Argumenti: Albania


    Albanian English

    Qysh nė fund tė tetorit tė vitit 1912 nė rrethet diplomatike dhe nė shtypin evropian filloi tė flitej pėr nevojėn e ndryshimeve territoriale nė tė mirė tė aleatėve ballkanikė.

    Nė kėto kushte, patriotėt shqiptarė qė ndodheshin jashtė atdheut vendosėn tė ndėrmerrnin njė veprim tė ri politik krahas atij tė “Shoqėrisė sė zezė pėr shpėtim” e tė rretheve tė tjera atdhetare brenda vendit. Qėllimi i kėtij veprimi do tė ishte tė shpėtohej Shqipėria nga copėtimi, tė ruhej tėrėsia e saj tokėsore e tė mblidhej njė kuvend kombėtar qė do tė vendoste pėr fatin e saj.

    Nismėn pėr kėtė veprim tė ri e morėn Ismail Qemali dhe Luigj Gurakuqi, tė cilėt mendonin se do tė kishin pėrkrahjen e Lidhjes Trepalėshe. Ata u nisėn nga Stambolli dhe arritėn nė Bukuresht, ku mė 5 nėntor 1912 organizuan mbledhjen e kolonisė shqiptare tė atjeshme. Aty u vendos tė themelohej “njė komitet drejtonjės” qė tė merrte nė dorė qeverinė e vendit; tė krijohej njė komision qė do tė shkonte nė Evropė pėr tė mbrojtur pėrpara qeverive tė Fuqive tė Mėdha “tė drejtat kombėtare e lokale tė popullit shqiptar” dhe njė komitet nė Bukuresht, qė do tė bashkėrendonte veprimtarinė e komiteteve tė tjera brenda e jashtė Shqipėrisė pėr t’i ardhur atdheut nė ndihmė. Mbledhja e Bukureshtit nė vendimin e saj nuk pėrcaktoi qartė nėse do tė kėrkohej autonomi a pavarėsi. Kjo do tė pėrcaktohej, siē duket, nga zhvillimi i mėtejshėm i ngjarjeve dhe nga qėndrimi qė do tė mbanin kundrejt ēėshtjes shqiptare Fuqitė e Mėdha.

    Pėr kėtė qėllim Ismail Qemali me shokė shkoi nė Vjenė, ku bisedoi me ambasadorin anglez, Berhtoldin, dhe me ambasadorin italian. Gjatė rrugės ose ndoshta nė kryeqytetin austriak Ismail Qemali u njoftua pėr lėvizjen qė kishte filluar nė Shqipėri pėr mbledhjen e njė kuvendi kombėtar. Ai i deklaroi mė 10 nėntor ambasadorit anglez se do tė nisej sė shpejti pėr nė Vlorė pėr tė marrė pjesė nė njė mbledhje tė krerėve shqiptarė, se shqiptarėt ishin tė vendosur tė ruanin vendin e tyre, se ata do tė luftonin deri nė pikėn e fundit tė gjakut pėr tė mos lejuar njė copėtim tė tij dhe se krijimi i njė Shqipėrie mė vete do tė mėnjanonte njė ndėrhyrje tė Austrisė dhe tė Italisė. Ideja pėr mbledhjen e njė kuvendi nė Shqipėri, qė do t’u paraqiste Fuqive tė Mėdha kėrkesat e popullit shqiptar, kishte gjetur pėrkrahjen e qeverisė austro-hungareze. Berhtoldi e njoftoi Ismail Qemalin se Vjena ishte pėr njė Shqipėri autonome. I tillė ishte edhe opinioni qė mbizotėronte nė rrethet diplomatike tė Fuqive tė tjera tė Mėdha.

    Por autonomia nė kuadrin e Perandorisė Osmane tashmė nuk kishte asnjė kuptim. Ushtria osmane nė Ballkan ishte shpartalluar nė tė gjitha frontet. Trupat serbe, malazeze e greke kishin hyrė thellė nė tokėn shqiptare. Nė kėto kushte e vetmja zgjidhje e drejtė e ēėshtjes shqiptare ishte ajo e shpalljes sė pavarėsisė. Nė kėtė pėrfundim arriti grupi i atdhetarėve i kryesuar nga Ismail Qemali, i cili mė 19 nėntor deklaronte nė Trieste, ku kishte arritur bashkė me shokėt, se: “... menjėherė pas mbėrritjes sė tij nė Shqipėri do tė shpallej pavarėsia e Shqipėrisė dhe do tė zgjidhej qeveria e pėrkohshme”. Nga Triestja komisionit qė ishte formuar nė Vlorė pėr pėrgatitjen e mbledhjes sė kuvendit kombėtar iu dėrgua njė telegram, me anė tė tė cilit kėrkohej qė tė merreshin masa pėr thirrjen e delegatėve. Ideja e pavarėsisė sė Shqipėrisė dhe lajmi i mbledhjes sė kuvendit kombėtar u pritėn me entuziazėm tė madh nė Shqipėri, ku gjetėn njė truall tė pėrgatitur qysh mė parė nga rrethet atdhetare tė vendit. Kėto rrethe kishin vendosur lidhje ndėrmjet tyre dhe kishin caktuar Vlorėn si qendėr ku do tė bėhej mbledhja e pėrfaqėsuesve tė kombit shqiptar.

    Grupi i kryesuar nga Ismail Qemali arriti nė Durrės mė 21 nėntor. Sė bashku me atdhetarėt durrsakė ai vendosi tė ngrinte nė qytet flamurin kombėtar. Por autoritetet osmane, tė ndihmuara nga armiku i Lėvizjes Kombėtare Shqiptare dhespot Jakovi, arritėn, ndonėse pėrkohėsisht, ta pengonin kėtė veprim. Komanda turke e Janinės u orvat nga ana e saj ta kapte Ismail Qemalin gjallė ose vdekur, por shumė shpejt u detyrua tė hiqte dorė nga ky vendim. Administrata turke nė krahinat e Shqipėrisė, tė papushtuara ende nga ushtritė ballkanike, nė pėrgjithėsi nuk ishte nė gjendje ta pengonte lėvizjen shqiptare. Ajo i trembej shumė njė konflikti tė armatosur me shqiptarėt, nė njė kohė kur po ndiqej kėmba-kėmbės nga aleatėt ballkanikė dhe kur e vetmja rrugė tėrheqjeje nė perėndim ishte Shqipėria. Tė shoqėruar nga delegatėt e Durrėsit, tė Shijakut, tė Tiranės e tė Krujės, Ismail Qemali me shokėt e tij u nisėn pėr nė Kavajė. Prej andej nėpėr Karatoprak kaluan nė Fier, ku u takuan me delegatėt e Kosovės, dhe mė 25 nėntor arritėn nė Vlorė. Kėtu delegatėt e popullit shqiptar u pritėn me festė. “Njė zjarr i shenjtė patriotizmi, - shkruan Ismail Qemali nė kujtimet e tij, - kishte pushtuar qytetin ku kisha lindur dhe populli mė pėrshėndeste kudo me entuziazėm dhe gėzim”.

    Puna e parė e udhėheqėsit patriot qysh mė 26 nėntor ishte organizimi i forcave tė armatosura. Pėr kėtė qėllim ai ngriti njė komision organizues dhe u dėrgoi pleqėsive tė katundeve njė qarkore, me anėn e sė cilės porositeshin tė mobilizonin njerėzit e aftė pėr armė dhe t’i mbanin ata nė gatishmėri.

    Ndėrkohė, ushtria serbe po pėrparonte me shpejtėsi nė tokat shqiptare. Ajo po i afrohej Durrėsit, Tiranės, Krujės dhe Elbasanit. Rrethet atdhetare tė kėtyre qyteteve vendosėn ta shpallnin sa mė parė pavarėsinė pėr t’i vėnė autoritetet ushtarake serbe pėrpara faktit tė kryer. Mė 25 nėntor Elbasani shpalli i pari pavarėsinė. Tė nesėrmen atė e shpallėn Durrėsi e Tirana dhe mė 27 nėntor Kavaja, Peqini e Lushnja.

    Pėr shkak tė pėrparimit tė pandalur tė ushtrive serbe, gjendja nė Shqipėri po bėhej gjithnjė mė kritike. Kjo ishte arsyeja qė nė mbrėmjen e 27 nėntorit delegatėt qė ndodheshin nė Vlorė, ndonėse nuk kishin arritur ende pėrfaqėsuesit e disa krahinave, vendosėn tė mblidhnin tė nesėrmen kuvendin kombėtar.

    Mė 28 Nėntor 1912, nė orėn 14, u hap nė Vlorė Kuvendi Kombėtar.
    Nė mbledhjen e parė tė Kuvendit morėn pjesė 37 delegatė, tė cilėt u shtuan gjatė ditėve qė pasuan duke arritur nė 63 veta, qė pėrfaqėsonin tė gjitha viset shqiptare. Pjesa mė e madhe e tyre ishin udhėheqės e veprimtarė tė Lėvizjes Kombėtare Shqiptare. Pėrveē Ismail Qemalit merrnin pjesė Luigj Gurakuqi, Isa Boletini, Sali Gjuka, Bedri Pejani, Rexhep Mitrovica, Vehbi Agolli, Nikollė Kaēorri, Jani Minga, Abdi Toptani, Pandeli Cale, Dudė Karbunara, Lef Nosi, Mithat Frashėri, Mehmet Dėralla, Hasan Hysen Budakova, Ajdin Draga, Sherif efendi Dibra, Dhimitėr Mborja, Dhimitėr Zografi, Shefqet Daiu, Rexhep Ademi, Dhimitėr Berati, Kristo Meksi, Xhelal Koprėncka, Spiro Ilo, Iljaz Vrioni, Hajredin Cakrani, Shefqet Vėrlaci etj.

    Isa Boletini mbėrriti me 400 luftėtarė kosovarė mė 29 nėntor, i pritur me gėzim tė madh nga popullsia dhe nga delegatėt e Kuvendit. Nga udhėheqėsit e tjerė kosovarė, pėr shkak tė rrethanave tė luftės, nuk mundėn tė merrnin pjesė Hasan Prishtina, Nexhip Draga, Idriz Seferi, Sait Hoxha etj., qė ndodheshin nė burgun e Beogradit, si edhe Bajram Curri, i cili, ndonėse u nis pėr nė Kuvend, u pengua nga luftimet gjatė rrugės. Pjesėmarrja nė Kuvend e delegatėve nga tė gjitha qytetet e Shqipėrisė, duke pėrfshirė edhe ato qė ndodheshin tė pushtuara nga ushtritė serbe, malazeze e greke, i dha atij karakterin e njė asambleje kombėtare mbarėshqiptare. Kjo ishte njėherazi shprehje e vendosmėrisė sė tė gjithė shqiptarėve pėr t’u bashkuar nė shtetin e vet kombėtar, nė tė cilin do tė pėrfshiheshin tė gjitha viset shqiptare.

    Kuvendi zgjodhi si kryetar Ismail Qemalin, i cili foli pėr tė kaluarėn e Shqipėrisė nėn sundimin osman dhe pėr luftėrat e shqiptarėve pėr tė fituar tė drejtat e tyre. Ai vuri nė dukje se nė rrethanat e krijuara nga Lufta Ballkanike “e vetmja udhė shpėtimi ishte ndarja e Shqipėrisė nga Turqia”. Propozimi i kryetarit u miratua njėzėri nga delegatėt, tė cilėt nėnshkruan dokumentin historik pėr Pavarėsinė e Shqipėrisė, ku thuhej: “... Shqipėria me sot tė bėhet mė vehte, e lirė e mosvarme”. Pastaj u ngrit madhėrisht flamuri kombėtar i Shqipėrisė pėrpara mijėra njerėzve qė ishin mbledhur jashtė selisė sė Kuvendit e qė e pritėn kėtė ngjarje historike me brohoritje entuziaste, ndėrsa populli pėrshkonte duke kėnduar rrugėt e qytetit, oratorėt atdhetarė, si Jani Minga, Murat Toptani etj., me fjalimet e zjarrta evokonin luftėrat e popullit shqiptar pėr liri.

    Nga Kuvendi i Vlorės doli gjithashtu qeveria e pėrkohshme e kryesuar nga Ismail Qemali.

    Rėndėsia historike e Shpalljes sė Pavarėsisė

    Shpallja e Pavarėsisė ishte njė akt me rėndėsi jetike pėr popullin shqiptar. Ajo, nga njėra anė, mbylli njė epokė tė tėrė luftėrash e pėrpjekjesh shekullore pėr tė hequr qafe zgjedhėn e huaj, pėr tė ruajtur tėrėsinė territoriale tė atdheut e pėr tė formuar shtetin e lirė kombėtar shqiptar duke kurorėzuar veprėn e Rilindjes dhe, nga ana tjetėr, hapi njė epokė tė re, njė epokė luftėrash e pėrpjekjesh tė tjera pėr ta mbrojtur pavarėsinė e fituar nga rreziqet e jashtme e tė brendshme, pėr tė siguruar bashkimin kombėtar tė gjymtuar rėndė dhe pėr tė vendosur rendin demokratik.

    Ngritja e flamurit kombėtar nė Vlorė pėrfaqėsonte fitoren e pėrbashkėt tė tė gjitha trevave shqiptare prej Rrafshit tė Dukagjinit nė veri e deri nė Ēamėri nė jug, prej brigjeve tė Adriatikut e tė Jonit nė perėndim e deri nė fushat e Kosovės, tė Tetovės, nė pellgun e Shkupit, nė luginėn e Preshevės e tė Kumanovės, nė lindje. Kėto treva, duke marrė pjesė gjallėrisht me pushkė e me penė nė lėvizjen pėr ēlirimin kombėtar, vunė gurė nė themelet e pavarėsisė shqiptare, i ēimentuan ato me gjakun e bijve mė tė mirė dhe i hapėn rrugėn formimit tė shtetit shqiptar.

    Kuvendi i Vlorės e shpalli pavarėsinė nė emėr tė tė gjithė shqiptarėve, tė tė gjitha trevave shqiptare, qė dėrguan pėrfaqėsuesit e tyre nė tė. Ai e trajtoi Shqipėrinė njė e tė pandarė. Edhe qeveria shqiptare e Ismail Qemalit doli nė rrafshin ndėrkombėtar si pėrfaqėsuese e gjithė popullsisė shqiptare dhe e tė gjitha tokave shqiptare, edhe pse njė pjesė e madhe e tyre ishte e pushtuar nga ushtritė e shteteve ballkanike. Edhe deklaratat e notat e protestės, qė kjo qeveri u dėrgoi shteteve ballkanike e komandave tė tyre ushtarake, nė tė cilat kėrkoi largimin e menjėhershėm tė forcave tė huaja ushtarake nga trojet e pushtuara shqiptare dhe kthimin e tyre Shqipėrisė, u bėnė nė emėr tė Asamblesė Kombėtare qė pėrfaqėsonte tė gjitha trojet e banuara nga shqiptarėt.

    Me Aktin e 28 Nėntorit 1912 sanksionohej e drejta e pamohueshme historike e kombit shqiptar pėr tė qenė i bashkuar, i lirė e i pavarur nė trojet e veta, krahas popujve tė tjerė tė Gadishullit Ballkanik. Kjo ishte njė e drejtė qė buronte nga qenia e tij si popull me gjuhėn, me kulturėn, me individualitetin e me historinė e vet, e drejtė e fituar me mundime e sakrifica tė panumėrta nė llogoret e luftės, e drejtė qė i takonte pėr ndihmesėn e vyer nė dėbimin nga Ballkani tė sunduesve tė huaj osmanė.

    Kuvendi i Vlorės hodhi themelet e shtetit tė ri sovran shqiptar.
    Pėr ta siguruar njė fitore tė tillė popullit shqiptar iu desh tė bėnte njė luftė tė gjatė kundėr sundimtarėve osmanė dhe synimeve grabitqare tė fuqive tė huaja. Njė varg rrethanash tė brendshme e tė jashtme kanė bėrė qė kėto lėvizje tė mos arrinin dot objektivin. Por nė ēdo etapė ato kanė vėnė nė provė forcat materiale e morale tė popullit shqiptar, kanė pasuruar pėrvojėn e traditat e tij luftarake dhe kanė krijuar premisat pėr zhvillimin e mėtejshėm tė luftės. Nė shek. XIX e nė fillim tė shek. XX kjo luftė u zhvillua mbi baza tė reja shoqėrore e politike dhe mori karakter tė ndėrgjegjshėm kombėtar.

    Shpallja e autonomisė nga Lidhja e Prizrenit dhe ajo e Pavarėsisė nga Kuvendi i Vlorės mė 1912 janė dy hallkat themelore nė zinxhirin e ngjarjeve tė lėvizjes kombėtare, tė lidhura organikisht ndėrmjet tyre si shprehje e vullnetit popullor dhe si pasojė e drejtpėrdrejtė e pėrfundim logjik i luftės ēlirimtare. Por, Shpallja e Pavarėsisė shqiptare ishte nė tė njėjtėn kohė njė etapė mė e lartė, e pėrcaktuar nga zhvillimi progresiv i lėvizjes dhe nga rrethanat ndėrkombėtare.

    Nė Gadishullin Ballkanik Shqipėria, sikurse Maqedonia, ishte vendi qė u ēlirua i fundit nga sundimi i sulltanėve osmanė, nė njė kohė kur popujt e tjerė fqinjė kishin, kush mė shumė e kush mė pak, dhjetėra vjet qė bėnin jetė shtetėrore tė pavarur. Kjo vonesė u shkaktua nga faktorė ekonomikė, shoqėrorė e politikė, tė brendshėm e tė jashtėm, qė vepruan ndėrsjelltas mbi Lėvizjen Kombėtare Shqiptare dhe pėrcaktuan ritmet e zhvillimit tė saj. Prapambetja ekonomike e shoqėrore e vendit ishte padyshim njė faktor qė vonoi rritjen e forcave organizuese e drejtuese tė lėvizjes kombėtare e si pasojė e vėshtirėsoi dhe e vonoi Shpalljen e Pavarėsisė. Megjithatė, edhe pse Shqipėria ishte njė vend i vogėl e mbi tė rėndonte zgjedha e njė perandorie tė madhe, njė faktor themelor qė e vonoi pėr dhjetėra vjet pavarėsinė shqiptare ishte ai i jashtėm. Populli shqiptar ka qenė gjatė gjithė lėvizjes pėr ēlirimin kombėtar i vetėm, pa ndihmėn e jashtme e pa aleatė. Pėr mė tepėr, shtetet ballkanike fqinje, tė cilat tė parat patėn siguruar pavarėsinė, luftuan me tė gjitha mjetet, duke filluar nga presionet diplomatike e duke mbaruar edhe me ndėrhyrje tė armatosura, kundėr Lėvizjes Kombėtare Shqiptare, e cila pėr nga qėllimet e saj ishte nė kundėrshtim me planet e tyre tė skllavėrimit ekonomik e politik dhe tė copėtimit tė Shqipėrisė. Edhe Fuqitė e Mėdha, tė cilat, gjatė gjithė shek. XIX patėn pėrkrahur popujt e krishterė tė Ballkanit (serbėt, grekėt, rumunėt e bullgarėt) tė formonin shtetet e tyre tė pavarura, pėr njė kohė tė gjatė, mbajtėn njė qėndrim mospėrfillės ndaj ēėshtjes shqiptare.

    Nė kėtė qėndrim pati ndikimin e vet edhe fakti qė shqiptarėt, tė ndarė nė tri fe (edhe pse i bashkonte njė ndėrgjegje e vetme kombėtare), me njė shumicė zotėruese myslimane, shiheshin nga Evropa e sidomos nga Rusia e krishtere si njė popull i huaj me to dhe mė i afėrt me turqit myslimanė. Jo vetėm Rusia, por edhe shtetet e tjera evropiane nuk qenė shkėputur ende nė atė periudhė nga konceptet e vjetra teokratike pėr kombin, edhe pse perandorive shumėkombėshe teokratike po u vinte fundi.

    Nė kėto kushte, lufta pėr pavarėsinė e Shqipėrisė nuk mund tė mbėshtetej veēse nė forcat e popullit shqiptar dhe mund t’ia arrinte qėllimit vetėm kur tė krijohej njė koniunkturė e favorshme ndėrkombėtare, kur kontradiktat ndėrmjet Fuqive tė Mėdha mund tė shfrytėzoheshin me sukses pėr realizimin e saj.

    Pavarėsia e Shqipėrisė u shpall nė kushte tė tilla ndėrkombėtare. Udhėheqėsit e Lėvizjes Kombėtare Shqiptare, nė fazėn e fundit tė saj, ditėn tė shfrytėzonin me mjeshtėri koniunkturėn politike qė u krijua me shpėrthimin e Luftės sė Parė Ballkanike, kur nė ēėshtjen shqiptare u ndeshėn me forcė interesat e kundėrt tė Fuqive tė Mėdha. Ėshtė meritė e kėtyre atdhetarėve largpamės dhe, nė mėnyrė tė veēantė, e atdhetarit dhe e diplomatit tė shquar Ismail Qemali, qė, duke u mbėshtetur nė luftėn e popullit shqiptar brenda vendit, zgjodhėn drejt ēastin e pėrshtatshėm pėr tė kaluar nga platforma e deriatėhershme politike e lėvizjes pėr autonominė nė atė tė pavarėsisė. Dhe kjo u realizua pikėrisht mė 28 Nėntor 1912, kur Turqia po dėbohej nga Ballkani, kur Fuqitė e Mėdha vendosėn tė hiqnin dorė nga ruajtja e status quo-sė nė Ballkan dhe kur planet e aleatėve ballkanikė pėr ta zhdukur Shqipėrinė, tė pėrkrahura edhe nga fuqitė e Antantės, u kundėrshtuan nga fuqitė e Lidhjes Tripalėshe. Vendimi historik i 28 Nėntorit drejtohej megjithatė jo vetėm kundėr politikės sė Fuqive tė Antantės dhe tė shteteve fqinje tė Ballkanit, por edhe kundėr planeve tė fuqive tė Lidhjes Tripalėshe. Kėto tė fundit, sidomos Austro-Hungaria e Italia, si mė tė interesuarat pėr ēėshtjen shqiptare, ishin nė atė kohė pėr autonominė e Shqipėrisė, nėn sovranitetin e sulltanit. “Pavarėsinė” e saj ato e shihnin si njė variant tė mundshėm tė zgjidhjes sė ēėshtjes shqiptare dhe e kuptonin nėn prizmin e interesave tė vet, si mjetin qė do t’u hapte rrugėn pėr tė vendosur kontrollin ekonomik e politik mbi Shqipėrinė, pėr ta pėrdorur popullin shqiptar si gardh kundėr shtrirjes sė shteteve sllave drejt perėndimit tė Shqipėrisė, si mbėshtetje pėr shtrirjen e tyre nė Ballkan.

    Shpallja e Pavarėsisė sė Shqipėrisė edhe pse, siē do tė provohej me vendimet e padrejta tė Konferencės sė Ambasadorėve tė Gjashtė Fuqive tė Mėdha tė Londrės (1913), nuk arriti tė bashkonte nė njė shtet tė vetėm gjithė territoret e popullsinė shqiptare, duke krijuar pas pesė shekujsh Shtetin e Pavarur Shqiptar pėrbėn ngjarjen mė tė madhe, unikale, nė historinė e kombit shqiptar gjatė shek. XX.

    Kthesa historike e 28 Nėntorit 1912 ishte premisa politike themelore pėr organizimin mbi baza mė tė pėrparuara tė jetės shtetėrore tė pavarur tė shqiptarėve dhe pėr zhvillimin mė tė shpejtė ekonomik, shoqėror e kulturor tė vendit. Duke formuar Shtetin e Pavarur Shqiptar ajo objektivisht krijoi gjithashtu premisat dhe atė bazė shtetėrore e politike, aq tė nevojshme pėr ta mbajtur tė gjallė ēėshtjen e ēlirimit dhe tė bashkimit tė tė gjitha trevave shqiptare dhe pėr zgjidhjen pėrfundimtare tė problemit shqiptar nė Ballkan.

    Qeveria e parė shqiptare

    Kryetar Shteti, kryeministėr dhe ministėr i Punėve tė Jashtme: Ismail Qemal bej Vlora
    Zėvendėskryeministėr: dom Nikollė Kaēorri
    Ministėr i Brendshėm: Myfit bej Libohova dhe Asllan Pashali
    Ministėr i Drejtėsisė: Dr. Petro Poga
    Ministėr i Bujqėsisė: Pandeli Cale
    Ministėr i Financave: Abdi bej Toptani
    Ministėr i Arsimit: Dr. Luigj Gurakuqi
    Ministėr i Luftės: Gjeneral Mehmet pashė Dralla
    Ministėr i Punėve Botėrore: Mitat Dume Frashėri
    Ministėr i Postėtelegrafės: Lef Nosi



    Koleksionisti Shqiptar - 29 Nentor 2009



    English

    November 28, 1912 - Independence of Albania

    Since the end of October 1912 in diplomatic circles and in the European press began to talk of the need for territorial changes in the best Balkan allies.

    In these conditions, Albanian patriots who were abroad decided to adopt a new political action alongside that of "Black Society to rescue" and other patriotic cities in the country. The purpose of this action would be to shpėtohej Albania by copėtimi, preserved the integrity of its land to meet a national assembly that will decide its fate.

    Initiative for this new action took Qemali and Luigj Gurakuqi Ismail, who thought they would have the support of the tripartite League. They set off from Istanbul and arrived in Bucharest, where on November 5, 1912 meeting organized Albanian colony there. It was decided to themelohej "drejtonjės a committee" to take in hand the country's government; to create a commission that will go to Europe to protect the government before the Great Powers "of national and local rights of the Albanian people" and a committee in Bucharest, which will co-ordinate the activities of other committees within and abroad come to homeland to help. Meeting in Bucharest in its decision did not specify clearly whether the required autonomy or independence. This would be determined, as it seems, the further development of events and the attitude that will carry the Albanian case against the Great Powers.

    For this purpose Ismail Qemali with friends went to Vienna, where he spoke with British Ambassador, Berhtoldin, and the Italian ambassador. Along the way, or possibly in the Austrian capital was reported Ismail Qemali movement which had begun in Albania for a meeting of national assembly. He said British Ambassador on November 10 that would leave shortly for Vlora to participate in a meeting of Albanian leaders, the Albanians were determined to preserve their country, they would fight until the last drop of blood to prevent a disintegration of his and that creating a separate Albania will mėnjanonte interference Austria and Italy. The idea for an assembly meeting in Albania, which will represent Great Powers demands of the Albanian people, he found the support of the Austro-Hungarian government. Qemali Berhtoldi Ismail announced that Vienna was for an autonomous Albania. Such was the prevailing opinion in diplomatic circles of other great powers.

    But autonomy under the Ottoman Empire had no meaning now. Ottoman Army in the Balkans was routed on all fronts. Serbian troops, Montenegrin and Greek had entered deep into Albanian soil. In these conditions the only fair solution of the Albanian issue was that of independence. In this conclusion reached patriotic group led by Ismail Qemali, which on November 19 stated in Trieste, where he had been with friends, that: "... immediately after his arrival in Albania will be declared Albania's independence and would be elected interim government. From Trieste commission was formed in Vlora for the preparation of the meeting of national assembly sent a telegram, through which required that measures be taken to call the delegates. The idea of independence of Albania and the story of the collection of national assembly were received with great enthusiasm in Albania, where they found a ground prepared first since the country's patriotic circles. These districts had established links between them and had given Vlora as a center where the meeting will become the representatives of Albanian nation.

    Group led by Ismail Qemali arrived in Durres on 21 November. Together with atdhetarė durrsakė he decided to raise the national flag in the city. But the Ottoman authorities, assisted by the enemy of the Albanian National Movement dhespot James arrived, though temporarily, to prevent this action. Turkish Command of Ioannina tried by its Qemali Ismail caught him alive or dead, but soon was forced to abandon this decision. Turkish administration in the provinces of Albania, still unoccupied by the Balkan armies in general was not able to prevent the Albanian movement. She feared many an armed conflict with the Albanians, in a time when foot-pedal is followed by Balkan allies and when the only way of withdrawing to the west was Albania. Accompanied by delegates of Durres, the Shijak, Tirana and Kruje, Ismail Qemali his friends left for FC. From there through Karatoprak passed in Fier, where delegates met with Kosovo, and on November 25 arrived in Vlora. Here delegates of the Albanian people were welcomed with celebration. "A holy fire of patriotism, - writes Ismail Qemali in his memoirs, - had taken the city where I was born and most welcoming people everywhere with enthusiasm and joy".

    The work of the first patriot leaders since November 26 was the organization of the armed forces. For this purpose he raised an organizing committee and sent a circular pleqėsive the villages, through which the mobilizonin people porositeshin capable weapons and to keep them alert.

    Meanwhile, the Serbian Army is rapidly advance the Albanian lands. It is near Durres, Tirana and Elbasan Kruja. Districts patriotic these cities decided to announcing soon bring independence to the Serbian military authorities conducted before the fact. November 25 Elbasan declared independence first. The next day it declared Durres and Tirana, and on November 27 Kavaja, Peqini of Lushnja.

    Due to progress pandalur Serbian army, the situation in Albania was becoming increasingly critical. This was why the evening of November 27 delegates were in Vlora, although they had not yet reached representatives of several provinces, decided to collect the day after the national assembly.

    On 28 November 1912, at 14, opened the National Assembly in Vlora.
    In the first meeting of the Assembly was attended by 37 delegates, who were added during the days that followed, reaching 63 people, representing all Albanian territories. Most of them were leaders of the Albanian National Movement activists. Besides attending Ismail Qemali Luigj Gurakuqi, Isa Boletini Sali Gjuka, Bedri Pejani Rexhep Mitrovica, Vehbi Agolli, Nikole Kaēorri, Jani Minga, Abdi Toptani Pandeli Cale, Karbunara Dude, Lef Nosi, Mithat Frashėri, Dėralla Mehmet, Hasan Hysen Budakova , Aydin Draga, Sheriff Efendi Dibra, Dhimitėr Mborja, Dhimitėr Zografi Shefqet Daiu, Recep Adam, Dhimitėr Berat Christo Meksi Jalal Koprėncka Spiro Ilo, Iljaz Vrioni, Hajredin Cakrani, Shefqet Verlaci others.

    Isa Boletini 400 fighters arrived with Kosovo on November 29, expected with great joy by the population and by individual Assembly Members. The other Kosovo leaders, because of the circumstances of war, failed to attend Hasan Prishtina, Nexhip Draga, Idriz Seferi, etc. Sait Hoxha., Who were in prison in Belgrade, as well as Bajram Curri, which, although left for the Assembly, was marred by fighting on the road. Participation in the Assembly of delegates from all cities of Albania, including those that were occupied by Serb armies, Montenegrin, Greek, gave him the character of a national assembly mbarėshqiptare. This was both an expression of determination of all Albanians to join their national state, which would include all Albanian territories.

    Assembly elected as chairman Qemali Ismail, who spoke about the past of Albania under Ottoman rule and wars of Albanians to gain their rights. He noted that the circumstances created by the Balkan War "the only way to salvation was the division of Albania from Turkey". Mayor's proposal was approved unanimously by the delegates who signed the historic document for the Independence of Albania, saying: "... Albania now become separately, free of mosvarme. Then arose madhėrisht Albanian national flag before thousands of people had gathered outside the headquarters of the Assembly who received this historic event with enthusiastic cheers, and people pėrshkonte city streets singing, eloquent atdhetarė, as Jani Minga, Murat Toptani others., with speeches evokonin flaming wars of the Albanian people for freedom.

    The Assembly of Vlora also appeared interim government headed by Ismail Qemali.

    Historical significance of the Proclamation of Independence

    The declaration of Independence was an act of vital importance to the Albanian people. She, on the one hand, closed an era of all wars of centuries of trying to get rid of the foreign yoke, to preserve territorial integrity of the homeland of the free form Albanian national state of being crowned the work of the Renaissance and, in turn, opened a new era, an era of wars and other efforts to protect the independence gained from external threats and internal, to ensure national unity and seriously disabled to set the democratic order.

    Establish national flag in Vlora representing common victory of all Albanian area of the plateau north of Dukagjin to Chameria south, the Adriatic coast of the Ionian to the west and up in the fields of Kosovo, Tetovo, in the basin of Skopje, in the Presevo valley of Kumanovo, in the east. These lands, by participating actively with rifles of ink in the national liberation movement, laid the foundation stones of Albanian independence, the ēimentuan those with blood of the children better and opened the way for formation of the Albanian state.

    Assembly of Vlora declared independence on behalf of all Albanians, all three Albanian, who sent their representatives to it. He tackled one of the inherent Albania. The Albanian government of Ismail Qemali came as the international representative of the entire Albanian population of all Albanian lands, although a large part of them was occupied by the armies of the Balkan states. The marks statements of protest, that this government Balkan states sent their military command, in which demanded immediate removal of foreign military forces from the occupied territories and return of their Albanian Albania, were made in behalf of the National Assembly representing all territories inhabited by Albanians.

    The Act of 28 November 1912 sanksionohej undeniable historical rights of the Albanian nation to be united, free independent ei its territories, along with other peoples of the Balkan Peninsula. This was a right derived from his being as people with language, culture, the individuality of its history, right near the countless sacrifices in war trenches, the right belonged to help the valuable in expulsion from the Balkans to foreign Ottoman rulers.

    Assembly of Vlora laid the foundations of new sovereign Albanian state.
    To ensure such a victory for the Albanian people had to make a long struggle against the Ottoman rulers and predatory targeting of foreign powers. A variety of circumstances domestic and foreign made that these movements can not reach the target. But in every stage they have put to the test material and moral forces of the Albanian people have enriched experience of its military traditions and have created the premises for further development of the war. In the century. Century and the beginning of the century. XX this war took place on the basis of new social and political and character took the national conscious.

    The declaration of autonomy by the League of Prizren and it's Independence from the Assembly of Vlora in 1912 are two basic links in the chain of events national movement, linked organically between them as an expression of popular will and as a direct consequence of the logical conclusion of liberation war . But the Albanian independence declaration was in the same time a higher stage, determined by the progressive development of movement and international circumstances.

    In the Balkan Peninsula, Albania, as Macedonia, was the last that was liberated from the rule of the Ottoman Sultans, in a time when other neighboring nations had, who more and who less, tens of years to be made independent state. This delay was caused by economic factors, social and political, internal and external, that did ndėrsjelltas on Albanian National Movement and determined its pace of development. Economic and social backwardness of the country was undoubtedly a factor that delayed the growth of organizational forces of leading the national movement as a result of difficult and delayed the declaration of independence. However, even though Albania was a small country on election rėndonte a great empire, a fundamental factor that delayed for tens of years the Albanian independence was foreign. The Albanian people have been throughout the national liberation movement only, without external help and without allies. Moreover, neighboring Balkan states, which had first ensure the independence, fought by all means, ranging from diplomatic pressure ending with armed intervention against the Albanian National Movement, which, by its goals was to contrary to their plans of economic and political slavery and devisioo Albania. The Great Powers, which, throughout the century. Century had supported Christian Balkan peoples (Serbs, Greeks, Romanians and Bulgarians) to form their independent states, for a long time, held a defiant attitude towards the Albanian issue.

    In this approach had its influence the fact that Albanians, divided into three religions (although only join a national consciousness), with a dominant Muslim majority, seen from Europe and especially from Christian Russia as a foreign nation to and close to the Muslim Turks. Not only Russia, but also other European countries were not yet in that period breakaway from old concepts theocratic nation, even though I was theocratic multinational empires come to an end.

    In these conditions, the struggle for the independence of Albania can not be based only on the forces of the Albanian people and may reach the goal only when it created a favorable international koniunkturė when contradictions between the Great Powers can be used successfully for the implementation of her.

    Albania's independence was declared in such international conditions. The leaders of the Albanian National Movement, in its latest phase, the day of access to political skill koniunkturėn was created with the explosion of the First Balkan War, when the Albanian issue was met by force contrary to the interests of Great Powers. It is the merit of these patriotic visionary and, in particular, the patriot and prominent diplomat Qemali Ismail, who, relying on the fight of the Albanian people in the country, chose the appropriate moment to move from the platform of political deriatėhershme movement for autonomy in that independence. And it was realized exactly on 28 November 1912, when Turkey is dėbohej from the Balkans, when the Great Powers decided to give up the preservation of the status quo in the Balkans and Balkan allies when plans gone to Albania, supported by powers The Antantės, was rejected by the League tripartite powers. Historic decision of November 28, however, directed not only against policy Antantės Powers and neighboring Balkan states, but also against plans League tripartite powers. The latter, especially Austria-Hungary and Italy, as interested in the Albanian issue, were at that time for the autonomy of Albania, under the sovereignty of the Sultan. "Independence" they saw her as a possible option to resolve the Albanian issue and understood under the prism of his interests, as the vehicle that would pave the way to establish economic and political control over Albania, for use Albanian people as a hedge against the extent of westward Slavic states of Albania, as support for their expansion in the Balkans.

    Albania's declaration of independence even though, as it will prove the unjust decisions of the Conference of Ambassadors of the Six Great Powers in London (1913), failed to unite in a single state all the territories of the Albanian population, creating five centuries of independent Albanian State is the largest event, unique in the history of Albanian nation during the century. XX.

    Historical curves of 28 November 1912 was the fundamental political premise for the organization on the basis of life on advanced independent Albanian state and faster economic development, social and cultural development of the country. Having established the Independent State of Albania it objectively and it also created the basic premise of the political state, so necessary to keep alive the issue of liberation and unification of all Albanian area and final settlement of the Albanian problem in the Balkans.

    Albanian government first

    State President, Prime Minister and Minister of Foreign Affairs: Ismail Kemal Bey Vlora
    Deputy Prime Minister: dom Nikole Kaēorri
    Interior Minister: Myfit Bey Libohova and Asllan Pashali
    Minister of Justice: Dr. Petro Poga
    Minister of Agriculture: Pandeli Cale
    Minister of Finance: Abdi Bey Toptani
    Minister of Education: Dr. Luigj Gurakuqi
    Minister of War: General Mehmet Pash Dralla
    World Affairs Minister: Mitat Dume Frashėri
    Minister Postėtelegrafės: Lef Nosi



    Albanian Collectionist - 29 November 2009





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